After looking at the images of the artist Christopher Payne, a photographer who focuses on the dwindling textile industry of the United States, and the processes and people who are part of the shrinking community. To view the gallery click here. There’s an accompanying article called ‘Fruits of the Loom’ After looking at the gallery, come back and read the AskFibres generated glossary, below. Then you’ll finally know what a beaming creel is.
beaming creel- A creel is a frame where multiple bobbins can be arranged where they will supply the threads to a loom. A beaming creel has the threads wound from the creel to a second beam before being used in the warp of a textile.
Bobbin is what people do when they move their heads to music. Well, in this context, it’s also a tube around which yarn or string is wound.
burling is a finishing process, where knots, nubs, lumps or loose threads are removed
carding- pink piles of wool that look like asbestos or insulation in the piece, carding is the process of combing a large quantity of wool into order. Wool, after it is dyed is a big tangled, kinked mass. The carding machine, a roller with metal teeth combs all the wool into straight, even lines, where it can be spun into yarn, much easier.
knitting machine- much like embroidery, most commercial knitting is done by knitting machine, where thread is knit back and forth to create the knit jersey most of us know as the material t-shirts and the like are made of.
roving is the piles of carded wool, before it is spun into yarn. Roving can also be used to make felt for felted hats, jackets, sheets of felt and so on.
spool- similar to a bobbin, a spool is basically a bigger bobbin
textile twister is a machine that takes multiple threads of yarn and twists them into one, it can also add more twists or tension to a thread, which determines how loosely or tightly it is formed.
wool picker is a machine that picks the wool, not in a choosing sense, but a picking out the threads and clumps to open it up and loosen the chunks, this helps blend the fibre, and colour if you’re working with wool dyed multiple colours.
You might know what a hatch is, but what the heck is a batten? People who sail? Anybody? Bueller? This expression, “batten (down) the hatches” the ‘down’ is optional, which means to prepare for inclement weather, or socially, what some of us might call, a shitstorm. It originates from the nautical jargon. The top deck of a large sailing ship wouldn’t be made of planks of wood nailed to each other, but arranged in a crisscross pattern with diamond shaped holes, the hatches, which would allow airflow to the lower decks. However, when storms or rain was expected, this water would get inside the ships. To prevent this from happening, tarps would be stretched across the decks and nailed down with long strips of wood called battens. So, when bad weather was predicted, the captain would order the crew to, “Batten the hatches!” This kind of behaviour is also acceptable onshore after committing major social faux-pas.
Similar to regular stitching, which keeps the seams or edges of clothing together to construct a garment, simple and more complex stitches can be used in a way to add interest to a piece of cloth. Embroidery has been used throughout history as a way to pattern cloth, and patterns can be in repeat, like a pattern of points or shapes repeated over and over, or more freeform motifs like birds or flowers on a piece of cloth. Embroidery can also incorporate beads, sequins, and other small decorative objects to add sparkle or texture.
Similar to cross stitch, embroidery is a more free form way of stitching cloth. As one of my fibres teachers put it, “It’s a way of painting with thread.” Also, check out my handiwork on the left! Embroidery is completed where a piece of fabric is stretched over a wood hoop, and held in place with a second hoop that has a tightening mechanism. This establishes tension over the fabric, making it much simpler to stitch. Simple stitches like a running stitch or back and forth stitch can be used to create more complex motifs, and others like a chain stitch, add visual interest. Because of its labour intensive process, embroidery was usually worn by the wealthier classes throughout history. Embroidery has a history across the world. Many cultures figured out that a simple needle and thread could create stunning patterns on plain fabric. The earliest examples of decorative stitching date to the 3rd and 5th century BC in China. In China and Japan, silk robes were embroidered with real gold thread for royalty, and embroidery has been used to decorate saree fabric. (pictured)
Examples of embroidery also come from the Medieval Islamic world, examples from the Ottoman Empire, Iran and Mongolia, are well documented. In most societies, embroidered clothing was a sign of wealth, across Islamic states flags, garments, religious objects were embroidered, as objects could be ornamented without disobeying the law of images. In England, work by guilds and professional embroiderers was called Opus Anglicanum, and became famous across Europe. (pictured) This work decorated lots of religious objects, and garments for priests.
Embroidery is usually made on fabric in a contrasting colour, so the pattern stands out more easily. It can also be done in an eye-straining white on white, which emphasizes the texture and pattern. Interestingly, it is one of the few crafts which technology has not altered significantly: It is a striking fact that in the development of embroidery … there are no changes of materials or techniques which can be felt or interpreted as advances from a primitive to a later, more refined stage. On the other hand, we often find in early works a technical accomplishment and high standard of craftsmanship rarely attained in later times.¹ Historical hand embroidery is as fine as it is today, and arguable even finer, as the difference in the way labour is done today and historically has changed significantly. Contrast that with the developments in something like Stonemasonry, where the combustion engine simplified the more difficult tasks of stonemasons, the embroidery needle is the same as it ever was, barring any minor details.²
The reason for this is because until the early 1700’s English spelling wasn’t standardized. Multiple dictionaries published at that time would show the spelling conventions on more of a regional level in the States and across the British Empire. Two works, Samuel Johnson’s A Dictionary of the English Language, from 1755 and Noah Webster’s An American Dictionary of the English Language from 1828 are the basis for English and American spelling, respectively. Back then, Webster was even a proponent of Spelling Reform, which worked to ensure spelling in the English language was more consistent and phonetic.
Today, Americans use the American standards for spelling, color, labor, modeling, center, liter (even though they don’t use that either) neighbor, and fiber, and the Brits and other countries that were formerly members of the British Empire, Canada, India, Australia, New Zealand, etc use the British form*. Officially, Canada uses the British standards, but pockets of Canadians don’t bother with adhering to those conventions. Not that it bothers me, or anything. Institutions like the government, media networks, publishing houses, and official bodies will use the British standards, but it’s not like there’s a language police who can monitor whether people are putting u’s in the right places. Oh, wait, there is.
Many words in English which end with -re, originate in the French, Latin, or Greek languages. Fibre is derived from the Latin fibra, meaning filament, or entrail (ew) and was incorporated into English from Middle French around the 16th century. When English became more common, the American standards changed the -re suffix to -er. Words like lustre, sombre, theatre are luster, somber, and theater in American English. The e before the r is kept in place in American-derived forms of nouns and verbs, like the noun fiber.
Though the spelling is different, both words mean textile fibre as well as dietary fibre in their respective spelling standards. There is not two spellings for two definitions. Remember that in Milwaukee, asking someone if they’re getting enough fibre means the same thing as in Manchester.
*colour, labour, modelling, centre, litre, neighbour, and fibre, incase you weren’t paying attention in English classes.